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cheap oakley sunglasses 9 MuscovyChickens, ducks,

9 Muscovy

Chickens, ducks, muscovies, geese, guinea fowl, quail, pigeons, and turkeys epitomize the concept of microlivestock. Throughout Africa, Asia, and Latin America they are (collectively) the most common of all farm stock. In many perhaps most tropical countries, practically every family, settled or nomadic, owns some kind of poultry. In the countryside, in villages, even in cities, one or another species is seen almost everywhere; in some places, several may be seen together. Although raised in all levels of husbandry, these birds occur most often in scattered household flocks that scavenge for their food and survive with little care or management.

Their size bestows microlivestock advantages, including low capital cost, low food requirements, and little or no labor requirements. They are also “family sized”: easily killed and dressed, with little waste or spoilage.

These poultry species help meet the protein needs of the poorest people in the world. Some are raised even in areas where domestic cattle cannot survive because of afflictions such as trypanosomiasis and foot and mouth disease. Some are maintained under conditions of intensive confinement provided a source of feed is available and can be produced in areas with insufficient land for other meat producing animals.

In addition, these birds grow quickly and mature rapidly. (For instance, a chicken can, under proper conditions, reach maturity in 26 months.) They adapt readily to being fenced or penned much, or all, of the time. And, compared with the major farm livestock, their life cycles are short and their production of offspring is high. Thus, farmers can synchronize production to match seasonal changes in the availability of feed.

Although poultry contribute substantially to human nutrition in the tropics, it is a small fraction of what it could be. The meat is widely consumed and is in constant demand. An excellent source of protein, it also provides minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, and iron, as well as the B complex vitamins riboflavin, thiamine, and niacin. Nutritionally as complete as red meat, it is much lower in cholesterol and saturated fats. Poultry eggs are also important sources of nutrients. They are a renewable resource, easy to prepare, and are among the best sources of quality protein and vitamins (except vitamin C).

In spite of their numbers and potential, poultry are rarely accorded prima cheap oakley sunglasses ry consideration in economic development activities. All in all, these small birds lack the appeal of large, four legged livestock. Indeed, most countries have little knowledge of the contribution household birds actually make to the well being and diets of their peoples. In some countries even those where birds are widely kept there is little or no poultry research or extension. And where such programs do exist they usually focus almost exclusively on the production of chickens under “industrial” conditions near cities (see sidebar, page 75).

Most developing countries now have these intensive chicken industries, in which birds are kept in complete confinement. However, these commercial operations provide food for people in the cash economy, not for subsistence farmers. Moreover, grain is sometimes diverted or imported to maintain these operations, perhaps causing food shortages, higher prices, or depleted foreign exchange. Thus, in this section we focus on other, neglected, aspects of poultry production.,

The neglect of poultry that cheap oakley sunglasses scavenge around the rural farmhouses and in village yards is understandable. The birds are scattered across the countryside where extension programs are difficult to implement.

Yet village poultry deserve greater attention. As converters of vegetation into animal protein, poultry can be outstanding. In fact, it is estimated that, in terms of feed conversion, eggs rank with cow’s milk as the most economically produced animal protein, and that poultry meat ranks above that of other domestic animals.

Most Third World poultry flocks live a wary, half wild existence, scrounging for insects, earthworms, snails, seeds, leaves, and leftovers from the human diet. From dung and refuse piles they salvage undigested grains, as well as insects and other invertebrates. Often the persons who care for them are women or children. Some keep the birds around the house, penning them at night for protection from predators and thieves.

This almost zero cost production has, in spite of high losses, a remarkable rate of return. Any improvements that require the purchase of supplies cut severely into the profitability. The first step in improving the production of free ranging poultry is vaccination against diseases (especially Newcastle disease, fowl pox, and Marek’s disease) and a modest, supplemental feeding during times of seasonal scarcity.

Throughout modem livestock farming the trend is toward more intensive methods, and poultry specialists have set the pace. In many countries, since the 1920s, barnyard fowl have given way to egg and broiler factories. The old fashioned chicken reared outside on corn stubbles for 5 or 6 months has been replaced by the broiler, mass produced in controlled environment houses in 7 10 weeks.

As a result of this revolution in poultry raising, small farmers who once made a comfortable living from a few laying hens have been forced out of business. These economic changes have also forced poultry men to have larger and larger flocks to survive. The largest broiler chicken companies even control their own breed development, feed production, house construction, slaughtering, and freezing, many even have wholesale outlets.

The rapid changes in poultry farming methods can be attributed to the application of advanced technology. The development of the incubator to replace the mother hen sitting her seasonal clutch of eggs was the first mayor step toward intensive poultry farming.

In addition, chickens were the first livestock to receive serious attention from geneticists. Before World War II, it was discovered that crossbreeding selected pure and inbred lines could result in dramatic increases in production. Hybrids tailor made for egg or meat production quickly ousted the old pure breeds such as the Rhode Island Red White and Brown Leghorns, Light Sussex, and the various crosses among them. Chicken broilers made by crosses involving parents derived from Cornish and Plymouth Rock have supplanted all others.

This situation now prevails in most industrialized countries. The breeding of commercial stocks is in the hands of a few corporations for each commodity (white eggs, brown eggs, chicken broilers, turkeys) and each has national or even global distribution of its hybrid stocks.


Newcastle disease is endemic in developing countries and is a constant threat to poultry. Farmers dread this virus, first identified half a century ago in northern England that brings diarrhea, paralysis, and death to most poultry. It is severe, highly contagious, and can cause 100 percent mortality. When it strikes an area, farmers must kill all chickens even healthy ones to stop it from spreading.

Only Australia, New Zealand, Northern Ireland and some Pacific islands are unaffected. But, although the disease is not found in Australia, certain strains of the virus are present in Australian chickens. These strains are completely harmless, but Australian researchers have found that they induce antibodies that are effective against Newcastle disease.

In a joint project (funded by the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research), scientists from Malaysia’s University of Agriculture and Australia’s University of Queensland have put this to good use. They have produced a live culture of the harmless virus that farmers can spray onto feed pellets to vaccinate their birds.

Field tests of the new vaccine, carried out in Southeast Asia, have been extremely promising. Simply coating feeds with the virus seems to be enough to immunize some chickens, which then pass the immunity on to the others in the flock as well as to new hatchlings. In Malaysia, which has 49 million chickens and a population willing to pay a premium for tasty village poultry meat, one economist estimates that the vaccine might increase rural incomes by 25 percent.

Conventional vaccines must be stored under refrigerated conditions, which most villages lack. But the Malaysian workers made the Newcastle disease vaccine tolerant of heat. By selective breedi cheap oakley sunglasses ng, they now have strains that resist 56C for at least 2 hours. Thus, even in the tropics, the vaccine remains effective for several weeks without refrigeration. The researchers have also devised methods for coating the vaccine onto pelleted feeds. Because the virus can withstand heat, they use a machine designed for coating pharmaceutical tablets.

At this stage, the project is showing every promise of producing a cheap means of reducing Newcastle disease losses among chickens throughout much of the world. Already inquiries have come from other Asian countries and from Africa, and it is hoped that the vaccine may eventually benefit many countries.

Chickens (Gallus gallus or Gallus domesticus)1 are the world’s major source of eggs and are a meat source that supports a food industry in virtually every country. There may be as many as 6.5 billion chickens, the equivalent of 1.4 birds for every person on earth.2

No other domesticated animal has enjoyed such universal acceptance, and these birds are the prime example of the importance of microlivestock. Kept throughout the Third World, they are one of the least expensive and most efficient producers of animal protein.

To the world’s poor, chickens are probably the most nutritionally important livestock species. For instance, in Mauritius and Nigeria more than 70 percent of rural households keep scavenger chickens. In Swaziland, more than 95 percent of rural households own chickens, most of them scavengers. In Thailand, where commercial poultry production is highly developed, 80 90 percent of rural households still keep chickens in backyards and under houses. And in other developing countries from Pakistan to Peru, a similar situation prevails.

Clearly, these chickens should be given far more attention. They represent an animal and a production system with remarkable qualities; they compete little with humans for food; they produce meat at low cost; and they provide a critical nutritional resource.

Scavenger chickens are usually self reliant, hardy birds capable of withstanding the abuses of harsh climate, minimal management, and inadequate nutrition. They live largely on weed seed cheap oakley sunglasses s, insects, and feeds that would otherwise go to waste.

Unfortunately, however, quantitative information about the backyard chicken is hard to obtain. Few countries have any knowledge of its actual contribution to the well being and diet of their people. Notably lacking is an understanding of the factors limiting egg production, which is markedly low and perhaps could be raised dramatically with modest effort.

cheap oakley sunglasses 9 Most Retarded PokemonPok

9 Most Retarded Pokemon

Pokemon, developed by Satoshi Tajiri in Tokyo, Japan in the 1990’s, was an international phenomenon. Some may argue whether it was poison for children’s minds, or revolutionizing the animated and RPG world. I personally will argue for the latter.

15 years and 493 pokemon later, we all have our personal list of the pokemon that we would hold dear, and proudly wear on our Pokebelts. But thats not what this is about. If you want to read that, screw off to Best Pokemon.

Zigzagoon walks in a zigzag fashion and is good at finding things in the grass and sometimes in the ground. It’s actually not really a retarded Pokemon at all, but it afforded me to make this joke. It would be handy to have around and would earn a very proud spot on my Pokebelt.

ABILITIES: Pickup, Gluttony, Finding dime bags that fell out of your pocket

WEAKNESSES: Fighting Who cares? Let’s smoke

Number Eight: Togepi

It’s shell is said to be stuffed with happiness that it shares with kindhearted people.

ABILITIES: Serene Grace, Hustle, Rolling his tongue

WEAKNESSES: Fighting Because it’s a pointy egg

Probably the cutest Pokemon out of nearly 500, it is more than just coincidence that it is the perfect size for punting.

Is it cute because it looks like a baby and rolls it’s tongue, or do I hate it because it looks like a baby and rolls it’s tongue? For obvious reasons, Togepi deserves it’s spot on this list.

Number Seven: Snorlax

It’s stomach can digest any kind of cheap oakley sunglasses food, even if it happens to be moldy or rotten.

ABILITIES: Thick fat, Immunity

Snorlax is the Pokemon that makes everyone uncomfortable. It has a nasty tendency to eat, sleep and gain weight. It’s height is approximately 6’11” and it weighs over a whopping 1000 lbs.

Fact: Snorlax is not sleeping, he’s just so obese that he has had 8 diabetic strokes and is now pretty much a vegetable.

Number Six: Slowpoke

Although slow, it is skilled at fishing with it’s tail. It does not feel pain if it’s tail is bitten.

ABILITIES: Oblivious, Own Tempo

WEAKNESSES: Oblivious, Spelling tests, Walking and chewing gum cheap oakley sunglasses .

You can’t look at this thing without cheap oakley sunglasses knowing it’s retarded. They were institutionalized in the early 1900’s with down’s syndrome children.

I’ll give it one thing, it has a pretty bad ass mustache.

Now don’t get me wrong, having a Magikarp would be fantastic if you had the patience for it to evolve. But let’s face it, chances are that it’s evolution Gyarados, would eat you. So your best bet is to cheap oakley sunglasses steer clear of that one all together.

Number Two: Caterpie

It releases a stench from it’s red antenna to repel enemies. It grows by molting repeatedly.


“Gotta catch ’em all!” might not apply here. “GO CATERPIE!” and then what happens? He’s going to spray his cocoon juice all over the place. Aside from a few (Seether, Pinsir, Beedrill), bug Pokemon seem utterly useless. Unless of course you’re a bee keeper or a hippie.

cheap oakley sunglasses 9 Money Saving Tips for Inexpe

9 Money Saving Tips for Inexpensive Giveways For Your Party

Putting together a successful class reunion requires planning, a lot of hard work and money. But you don’t have to break the bank when it comes to providing reunion favors for your classmates. Here are nine tips to help you save money on class reunion favors. Plan in Advance 1. Browse online for bargains. It takes time to hunt for the best deals. You should be able to find the same or a similar item in a wide range of prices. If you give yourself that extra time, you can obtain samples, judge the quality, and determine the best value. 2. Avoid rush orders. Remember, it usually takes longer for a company to create custom personalized reunion favors, than it would be to obtain a ready made item. If you wait un cheap oakley sunglasses til the last minute, you might get stuck paying a fee to speed up your cheap oakley sunglasses order. At the very least, you’ll be paying extra for faster shipping to get your reunion favors on tim cheap oakley sunglasses e. Do The Math 3. Watch for hidden fees. Yes, you might be able to purchase those imprinted pens for 53 cents each. But before you rush to order, find out what is the minimum amount you need to buy. If the company’s policy is that you have to buy at least 300 pens and you only have 80 people planning to attend your class reunion, then you’ll have 220 pens left over. So, it’s really not that good a deal. You would be better off paying a little extra for an item with a business that allows you to order only what you need. 4. Check to see if there’s a set up fee. Many times a company will advertise a low price, but then hit you with a hefty charge for designing your custom reunion favors. Make sure you read the fine print. 5. Pay close attention to the sliding scale in prices, based on the amount that you are purchasing. Some companies charge you less if you buy in greater volume. Let’s say you found personalized class reunion magnets for $1.75 each if you are ordering less than 100 favors. However, these same magnets are only $1.50 each if you buy more than 100 favors. You need 90 magnets as giveaways for your reunion. If you ordered exactly 90 at $1.75 each, your cost would be $157.60. However, if you order 100 at $1.50 each, your total would be $150. So, in this case, you would save money, $7.60 to be exact, if you purchased 10 extra magnets. If you want to save, then crunch the numbers. Handmade vs. Custom Made 6. Beware the handcrafted money pit. If you’re trying to save money on these giveaways, you might be thinking of making reunion favors yourself or delegating the task to a group of volunteers. But before you stock up on supplies at the craft store, add up the cost for each of the elements of your favors. Craft supplies are not cheap. You might be surprised at what you’re paying for your handmade creations. It is possible that you could save money by purchasing ready made or custom made favors from a company that specializes in them. 7. Check out cheap do it yourself alternatives. Not all handmade items are expensive to make. You can make your own class reunion candy bar wrappers, for example. There are free, printable chocolate bar wrapper templates online. Or, if you know someone creative, he or she can design a candy bar wrapper with your personalization and school colors. You have to pay for the candy bars (a 5 oz. Her cheap oakley sunglasses shey bar is a nice size) and the printing, but it shouldn’t break your budget. 8. Consider the wow factor. You can get away with spending very little money on class reunion favors, if you purchase giveaways that make an impression. You can find items such as personalized reunion bookmarks or pocket notebooks with fun facts from the year you graduated for a couple of dollars or less. Or, take a group photo at the reunion party and print copies of it on the spot with one of those portable printers. Then give everyone a copy to take home with them. You could even add a dollar store 4 x 6 inch frame, and your total cost would still be low. Use your imagination and go for unique. 9. Can’t afford to give it away? Sell it! Imprinted t shirts and personalized tote bags are great reunion items, but they’re expensive. You can take orders for these from your reunion website and sell them at the event itself. Your classmates will love them and it will help you pay for the reunion favors that you give away and for other things. So, take some time to check out all your low cost options for class reunion favors. Go over the price to get the best value and make sure you know what you’re paying. Then choose something cheap, but unique.